By John P. Snyder
So long as there were maps, cartographers have grappled with the impossibility of portraying the earth in dimensions. to unravel this challenge mapmakers have created 1000's of map projections, mathematical equipment for drawing the around earth on a flat floor. but of the masses of present projections, and the endless quantity which are theoretically attainable, none is completely accurate.
Flattening the Earth is the 1st distinctive background of map projections on the grounds that 1863. John P. Snyder discusses and illustrates the loads of recognized projections produced from 500 B.C. to the current, emphasizing advancements because the Renaissance and shutting with a glance on the number of projections made attainable by way of computers.
The booklet includes a hundred and seventy illustrations, together with define maps from unique assets and sleek automated reconstructions. although the textual content isn't really mathematically dependent, a couple of equations are integrated to allow the extra technical reader to devise a few projections. Tables summarize the good points of approximately 200 various projections and record these utilized in nineteenth-and twentieth-century atlases.
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Additional info for Flattening The Earth: Two Thousand Years Of Map Projections
Oval Projections The oval type of projection resembles a worldwide version of some of the globular hemispheres. It was produced with several variations. Common to nearly all oval projections are equidistant horizontal lines for parallels and curved meridians equidistant at the equator. While medieval mappaemundi were bounded in the early twelfth century by curves that could be called rudimentary ovals, they should not be called oval map projections because they lack either graticules of meridians and parallels or geographic arrangements that would imply agreement with the above definition even if a graticule we re superimposed.
Points marked along the central me ridian at the same spacing as those along the equator provided third points for parallels oflatitude as circular arcs through the equidistant points on the outer meridians. 19. Modern outline reconstruction of the equatorial stereographic projection as used in Mercator atlases beginning in 1595 for the western hemisphere. 10° graticule. Central meridian 110° W longitude. FIGURE noxious to error" if a "Canon [or Table] of [trigonometric] Tangents" were used to mark these intersections in proportion to the tangents of half the angles from the center, "especially in great Maps" (322-23).
A partial 10° graticule by Werner (1514) using the oblique stereographic projection centered at 50° N latitude. Reproduced from Norclenskiold (1889, 92). to it; if you please to represent a larger portion than the Hemisphere, which is more commodious in this Method, to wit, that the Plain at least may pass through the depressed Pole. The refo re in the Plain, let the Center E , be taken for London, and the described Periphery ABCD, which sheweth the Horizon, must be divided into four quarters, and every one of these into 90 degrres [sic ]: let the Diameter BD, be the Meridian line: B the North Pole [sic ]: D the South Diameter.
Flattening The Earth: Two Thousand Years Of Map Projections by John P. Snyder